The Rules of Feeding

It crossed my mind the other day how much feeding horses has changed even over the relatively short time I have been working with horses. Does this mean that the rules of feeding we learn so diligently by rote need modernising, or have they stood the test of time?

Let’s go through them one at a time.

  1. Feed according to size, age, body weight, type, temperament, time of year, level of work, level of rider. With all the modern complete feeds on the market I think it is easier to choose, and trial, a feed that will suit your horse and then feed it in the correct quantity. For example, you can buy feeds specifically designed for laminitics, veterans, excitable horses, endurance, stud, and any other factor you can think of. However, there is still a huge (excuse the pun) problem of horses being overfed. I feel this is more due to the quantity they are given, their grazing being too rich, and owners being unable to distinguish between healthy and overweight animals rather than the type of feed being unsuitable for them though.
  1. Feed little and often. This rule comes from wise observations of horses in their natural state, and as the digestive tract of a horse has not changed in the last century we can be sure that this rule is as relevant today as it was when the rules were first drawn up.
  2. Always feed good quality food. Just the same that we wouldn’t eat poor quality food, feeding poor quality food can lead to respiratory or digestive disorders as well as being a false economy as the horse will drop weight and under perform. Since the early 2000s the EU has passed many regulations on the quality of equine feeds, which I think makes it far harder to purchase low quality food.
  3. Feed plenty of bulk. This rule is based on the observation of a horse’s natural diet, and as I said before they haven’t changed physiologically in recent years we should still feed plenty of bulk. The knowledge of the average leisure rider has improved vastly so whilst this rule is no less important, it is done more autonomically. Additionally, the complete feeds that you now buy instead of having to mix various straight feeds, are all based on a mainly fibrous diet.
  4. Do not make any sudden changes to the type of food being fed. Again, as this rule is based on the horse’s physiology, so is still relevant today. I think the feeds on today’s market does mean that there is less change in a horse’s diet over the course of a year though. Because the off the shelf feed bags are complete feeds within themselves, a horse’s base diet stays the same throughout the year, it may just change in volume between seasons, or it may be supplemented during competition season in order to keep the horse’s performance levels up. When I was young I can distinctly remember our ponies diets changing quite radically between winter and summer. Matt always had to have the oats removed once he started living in, and barley added from September to help keep the weight on him. Nowadays, he has the same type of feed all through the year, but the ratio is adjusted if he needs to gain weight.
  1. Always use clean utensils and bowls. We don’t eat off dirty plates so why should our horses use dirty bowls? The move towards plastic feed buckets in recent years rather than the rubber ones does mean it’s easier to keep them cleaner to a higher standard. And of course you can write names onto plastic buckets more easily, which reduces the risk of cross contamination of illnesses and medicine. I think perhaps the importance of preventing horses getting the wrong medicine, or banned substances in their feed, has increased in recently years with the FEI having more stringent rules surrounding medicines in competition, and the fact there are more non-professional riders competing at the highest levels and under rules. Also more leisure horses are fed drugs for maintenance, such as Bute or prascend, which increases the risk of competition horses being exposed to the drugs.
  2. Feed at regular times daily. Horses are creatures of habit so thrive on routine, but equally having a frequent feed routine helps to keep the digestive system flowing. This helps reduce stress, which is linked to gastric ulcers. There seems to be more cases of ulcers nowadays, but whether that’s because of better diagnostic techniques and understanding of the equine body. Or whether horses have more stressful lives – in terms of routine, competitions, environment – yes, I know that’s a can of worms! So the rule is old and still relevant, but has the reasoning behind the rule changed slightly as our demands on the horse changed?
  3. Feed something succulent every day. This rule is to provide horses with variety to the diet and to provide extra vitamins. Now that complete feeds are scientifically balanced to provide the correct quantities of vitamins and minerals are carrots, parsnips, salt licks as necessary?
  1. Water before feeding. This comes from when horses were predominantly kept in stalls not loose boxes (think of Black Beauty) so didn’t have access to water all the time. This rule has changed in the revised textbooks to “provide a clean, fresh supply of water at all times”. So yes, it has been modernised!
  2. Feed a hard feed at least an hour before exercise and longer before more demanding work. Just like we don’t swim an hour after eating to ensure blood is not diverted and away from the digestive system to working muscles leaving us with undigested food banging around our insides, it’s still not advisable to feed a horse just before riding. However, I do believe this rule needs expanding as now we are beginning to understand the importance of having a little bit of fibre (e.g. hay or chaff) in our horses stomachs when we ride to soak up excess gastric acid and help prevent the development of ulcers. Most people now give their horse a small haynet or a scoop of chaff while they are grooming for this reason.

In all, the rules of feeding are staying with the times and not becoming outdated, which is good news for us oldies! Are there any rules which could be added or expanded to, to make sure they’re more relevant to today’s stable management routines and the feed available on the market?

Another rule I can think of, which is fairly common sense, but still important with the numerous feeds that require soaking prior to feeding, is to follow the preparation instructions of compound feeds. The rules from the BHS textbook I looked at also did not mention about dampening feeds, which is vitally important in preventing horses bolting their food and getting choke.

I’d be interested on a nutritionist’s opinion on the original rules of feeding and their relevance to modern feeds.

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Continued Professional Development

In order to be part of the BHS coaches scheme, and have insurance, there are numerous hoops we have to jump through: such as child protection and first aid courses every couple of years. Which is why I was off relearning about CPR, defibrillators, and recovery positions today.

I’ve just seen an important announcement from the BHS this evening, saying that from January 2019 all accredited coaches must attend one CPD course a year. CPD stands for Continual Professional Development, and the idea of them is to encourage instructors to show an interest in expanding their knowledge, following advances within the industry, and to improve their skills. We used to have to do them every couple of years, and I think it is good to continue to expand your knowledge, even in your field of expertise. After all, you never stop learning.

Yet, I’m not sure that annual CPD courses will go down well with many coaches. For a number of reasons.

The BHS pays for our first aid and child protection courses, but we have to fund the CPD courses. These usually cost in the region of £60, but vary according to the type of training, and the trainer taking the course. Now most coaches are freelancers. Which mean that we don’t just take a day off to go to a CPD course; we have to rearrange our work onto different days (so long as the client can accommodate this) or lose out on that work. Which means that not only are we spending £60 on going on the course, we are also losing a day’s wages. Let’s say that you lose sux hours work in a riding school to go to the course. That’s a minimum of £60 wages you don’t receive. This is a minimum based on hourly rates which I’ve seen around the country. If you are self employed and lost a day’s work you are likely to be £100 out of pocket.

Additionally, a lot of the CPD courses aren’t local, and involve an hours commute. This brings in motor expenses of the best part of £10 each way.

It’s becoming expensive isn’t it? Not only are we spending in the region of £80 on attending the course, but we are losing out on wages in the region of £80.

I’m not saying that we don’t want to attend such courses, as we all like to learn, but I wonder if there’s a better way to do this. One that is more affordable, and more easier fitted into our busy working lives. For example, I go to relevant CPD days every couple of years, to tick the boxes for my APC (Accredited Professional Coaches) membership, but on a weekly basis I read articles, books, magazines, and talk to friends in the industry to share ideas and experiences. None of which technically counts as CPD, but all very much improve my knowledge and allow me to give the best lessons I can to my clients.

The variety of courses which count as BHS CPD days has increased over the last couple of years. Two years ago I struggled to find a course which was relevant to my level of training (as an AI looking to become an II) and less than two hours drive away. Now, courses like the Horses Inside Out day that I attended count. This means that we can expand our professional knowledge in a sideways fashion – looking at equine biomechanics, saddlery, and rider psychology for example, rather than purely coaching.

I’m not sure what the answer is, but perhaps CPD should be assessed with a variety of options, so that coaches are encouraged to develop their knowledge whilst being flexible to their busy working lives.

My thoughts are that over a calendar year a coach needs to amass a certain number of CPD credits. For example, a full day course could be worth 60 CPD credits, which is enough for each year. Then there could be a selection of shorter courses, or online webinars (perhaps similar to the evening talks by Gillian Higgins running in 2019 of which attending three talks counts as a CPD update) which could be worth 20 credits each. These evening talks would be on a variety of topics; lorinery, saddle fitting, dental health, vet talks, alternative therapies.

Having cheaper evening talks would be more doable for many coaches, as the cost of training is split over the year, and it’s flexible to their working week. With a variety of different subjects to choose from, you are more likely to inspire and motivate coaches to attend and learn. They will also not be losing so much work to attend an evening talk for a couple of hours so it is not as financially crippling.

I guess there would be a bit more paperwork in order to keep track of a coach’s CPD credits, but if the system is simple enough of three evening talks being the equivalent to one all day course, it shouldn’t be too difficult to keep track of it, and I think the majority of coaches would prefer shorter CPD sessions to the intensive full day courses.

Having looked quickly at the BHS website I couldn’t see a CPD day which is at an appropriate level to my qualifications, in the south of England, so I will just have to hope that something else is organised which is of interest to me and that my professional life will benefit from. I’ll keep looking, and hoping that the BHS works out how to implement this new ruling without upsetting too many coaches.

Feeding Breakfasts

One of the biggest logistical things I’ve noticed on DIY livery yard’s in the winter is the fact that everyone’s morning routine varies according to what time they start work. Which means that it can be quite stressful for horses waiting for breakfast or turnout.

Many yards I’ve observed have a rule that the first person on the yard feeds the entire yard. Which reduces the stress in horses when their neighbour is being fed and they aren’t. However, in order for this system to work several things need to be taken into account.

Firstly, feeding breakfasts needs to be done as quickly as possible. After all, the first person on the yard doesn’t want to spend fifteen minutes trying to feed the hungry horses, because they’ve got to go to work too. So every livery owner needs to prepare their feeds the night before and leave them dampened or soaked ready to be fed straightaway.

Secondly, feeds need to be stored so that they’re readily available for the half asleep early risers, clearly labelled, yet not left on the yard for cheeky ponies to help themselves when their small owner’s backs are turned, or left to encourage vermin.

Thirdly, everyone needs to know what time breakfast is. After all, there’s nothing worse than turning up for a quick pre-work ride only to find your horse has only just had breakfast. One way to reduce this risk is to give your horse a smaller ration in the morning, and their main hard feed in the evening if you usually ride in the mornings. And vice versa if you ride in the evening so you don’t have to wait as long in the cold and dark while they cool down and eat their tea.

Some yards leave feed buckets outside stables, covered with plastic covers. Which has the risk of attracting vermin, and being eaten by horses not tied up securely. Plus on windy days the covers blow across the yard. Other yards leave feeds in boxes outside stables, which can be time consuming opening any locks and lids.

I’ve spent a long time pondering the most effective way of implementing a “first one feeds” system and recently came across the best solution yet.

On the yard is a metal dustbin with a securely fastened lid, which is vermin and naughty pony proof. If the yard is bigger, then there is one bin per row of stables. Each horse is given a breakfast bucket, which is of a generous size to accommodate the larger feeds of the thoroughbreds, has two handles, and most importantly they are stackable. The yard provides these buckets so they can ensure that they are the correct dimensions. Each horse’s name is written on in very big, thick, black letters so the buckets can be easily identified in the half lit, early hours.

When livery owners make up feeds they fully prepare breakfast (damp or soak the feed) and put them into the bins, one on top of the other. Then when the first person arrives on the yard they go to the bin and take out the stack of buckets and then walk along the row feeding each horse. A super speedy way of satisfying hungry horses early in the morning without waking the neighbours, or on a Saturday morning when recovering from a heavy Friday night.

The only way that this system could be improved, in my opinion, is by the buckets being stacked in order; so you give the top bucket to the first horse, second to the next, and so on. However, with everyone coming at different times during the day, there would be a lot of lifting buckets in and out of the bin, and there being a high risk of a mistake being made when restacking, you’d need to check the names on the buckets as well, just in case.

What other systems do DIY yards employ to make feeding breakfasts a painless task? I’d be interested to know of a better system than this.

Moving Yards

Moving yards is almost as bad as moving house, isn’t it? I can’t say it’s something I’d undertake lightly.

However, having recently done it so that Phoenix is at a yard with winter-friendly facilities because she’s now in more work and I need the ability to ride after bedtime if needs be.

I’ve come up with some, well I like to think of them as, helpful tips.

  • Use the opportunity to have a big sort out of your things. Take rugs to be cleaned. Ask yourself if you really need that ancient whip with a wobbly end. When Otis moved to his retirement field and I was effectively horseless, I had a good clear out and sold things I definitely wouldn’t need or use again. Over the last couple of weeks I’ve gone through what was left in my garage with Phoenix in mind. For example, does that stable rug of Otis’s fit her? Will that saddle rack fit over her new stable door? So I’ve had quite a sort out. I’ll accumulate more, I’m sure, but it’s nice to have a declutter.
  • Organise your things in the yard into boxes so that moving is simple, and you’re not making endless trips to the car with forgotten haynets or spare stirrup leathers. Plus you’re less likely to forget anything.
  • Plan your move so that you can be around for any teething issues. We decided to move Phoenix on a Friday so that the new yard was quiet when she arrived, and I was around over the weekend to provide a familiar face and meet all her needs should she be unsettled.
  • Check the isolation procedure, if the new yard has one. A lot of yards require worming on arrival, so ensure you’ve got a wormer or have a recent worm egg count result. Some yards require horses to be stabled for forty eight hours in isolation on arrival. If your horse would find this particularly stressful; perhaps they’re young and never been stabled, or they struggle with separation anxiety, I would definitely recommend speaking to the new yard to see if anything can be done to reduce your horse’s stress.
  • Plan your moving day so you have plenty of time to observe your horse settling in. We moved all of my things to the new yard first thing in the morning, dumped it in Phoenix’s stable, and then went to pick her up. Then I unpacked and organised my things while she settled in the field. Once I was finished, she’d been there an hour and quite content. Then I went back to the yard later in the afternoon to check her again before dark.
  • Plan a couple of quiet days while your horse settles in. They may not seem outwardly disturbed, but internally there’s a lot of new things to process; new equines, new field, new yard environment. This may result in them lacking in a sleep because they aren’t fully comfortable in their surroundings so don’t have sufficient R.E.M. sleep, as I blogged a couple of weeks ago. I definitely found that Phoenix tired more easily when I rode her the first day, so I kept it short and sweet, being much more of an introduction to the new arena than anything else. I’ve found that Phoenix is very settled in the field, but slightly more anxious in her unfamiliar stable, so on the first day she just had her feed in there and spent a very short time in there. Then the following day slightly longer, all the time with hay. Gradually I’ve left her there for longer, and then yesterday she spent a couple of hours in there until being turned out, seeming farm more relaxed about the situation.
  • In the first few days I would be guided by your horse. Just ride them according to how they feel, or have a gentle hack in company so they can begin to take in their new surroundings. Some horses may benefit over the first couple of days or just being introduced to their new routine, so coming in and spending a few minutes being groomed in their new stable, having a hard feed in there and just generally absorbing their new environment. I think how well a horse takes to a yard move depends on their age (if they’ve had experience of a stable then they’re less phased by a new stable), their experience (if they’ve done a lot of competing then they are used to different environments and possibly staying overnight at competitions and camps), and their temperament – some horses just accept change more readily than others.
  • Although not always possible, I would definitely look at moving yards and keeping my horse’s general routine the same for at least a couple of weeks. For example, they’ll find it more stressful moving from living out twenty four hours a day to living in with daytime turnout only. Either move so that they can continue living out at the new yard for a couple of weeks, or begin bringing them in overnight at the old yard during the run up to them moving.
  • Introducing horses into fields is always the political, and delicate situation. Definitely speak to the new yard and the field mates, neighbours in individual turnout setups and those in the herd in group turnouts. If there’s a known leader to the herd, who can be quite bossy, (or even if your own horse is dominant!) having your horse on individual turnout adjacent to the herd field for a few days can help the horses introduce themselves, and then put the new horse in with the dominant horse for a couple of days, and then run the herd together. The horses will run, they will bite, and they will kick out while they establish their new pecking order.
  • You can help reduce the running round effect when a horse enters a new field. Phoenix went into a field on her own for the first few days, with neighbours either side, so upon her arrival I gave her a hard feed and then turned her out with a pile of hay in the field. If there’s plenty of grass that’s not necessary. The idea was that she wasn’t starving, and would quickly settle to eat some hay. She barely looked at her neighbours but took to the hay before happily wandering around the field, replete and unlikely to run around in excitement.
  • After a few days on individual turnout, Phoenix was joined by another horse. To integrate them I ensured Phoenix had had her hard feed and hay ration in the field, and the other horse was likewise fed, so that when the two were introduced hunger wouldn’t cause any arguments and they could concentrate on being friends. We also put out plenty of small piles of hay. Unfortunately Phoenix decided that all the hay was for her, especially that which came with the new horse. So the following day we gave them some time apart to ensure that they both ate sufficient hay, and then used my less exciting bale of hay in the field which seemed to help settle them. It usually takes a week or so for a new herd to establish their pecking order, but it’s beneficial for all if you make temporary accommodations to reduce the likelihood of any going hungry or getting hurt.
  • Take enough hay with you to the new yard so that your horse won’t be put off eating new hay whilst also being slightly stressed by the move. Then you can introduce the new yard’s hay over the course of a couple of days. Obviously with the greedy horses and ponies this isn’t so much of an issue!
  • Be aware that your horse may be unpredictable for the first few weeks as they settle in, so keep things quiet and be aware that the tractor on the new yard is scary because your horse isn’t as confident yet in their new surroundings.

Desensitisation

We can’t all be perfect, so I wasn’t surprised when I found Phoenix’s flaw the other week. I mean, she’s so good, and tries her heart out at everything I ask of her.

She’s getting a very hairy coat so I set a date in my diary to clip her.

I decided to check how Phoenix behaved with the clippers so I’d know how much help or time I’d need to put aside to clipping her. So I took my battery powered trimmers up to gauge her response.

As I introduced her to the silent trimmers she snorted suspiciously, but with some bribery she let me place them on both shoulders and move them over her neck and shoulders whilst still turned off.

I stood back, and turned them on. Then waited while she danced around nervously. I talked to her, and just waited for her to get used to the sound.

She didn’t, and was so suspicious of me while they were running that she wouldn’t even let me touch her with an outstretched left hand while the trimmers were in my outstretched right hand. So I turned them off, reassured her and then showed her them again whilst they were turned off.

I had some work to do!

In the grand scheme of things, having to sedate once or twice a year is no big deal. A slight inconvenience in the sense I have to plan a clip. There are worse traits. Like not loading in the torrential rain at a competition – I felt very smug when Phoenix walked straight on last weekend whilst our neighbours tried all sorts of tactics while it was stair-rodding. However, I want to try to desensitise Phoenix to them a little bit so we don’t require major sedation, just Sedalin or Domosedan, and so that she isn’t troubled when horses nearby are being clipped.

I’ve given her a month. At the beginning of November she needs to be clipped, whether that’s a sedation job and it all comes off, or she lets me do a chaser with no medication.

Every couple of days we’ve been having “trimmer time”, when I run the trimmers around her. Over the last fortnight we’ve progressed to not leaping out of our skin when the trimmers are turned on, and standing still while I run the running trimmers all over her neck, chest, shoulders, barrel, belly and stifle. She still doesn’t like them running to the top of her neck. Trimmer time is then followed by lots of praise, pats and a couple of treats before having her dinner.

Although Phoenix is more accepting of the trimmers, she still finds the procedure stressful. You can see her short, shallow breaths and by her body language. I’m hoping that as we do it more frequently she will find it less stressful. I also want to have her standing near a quiet horse when they are being clipped so she can hopefully learn by observation as well as just getting used to the noise. Her stress levels are also why I don’t do trimmer time daily, and why I do it when she’s had a groom, is relaxed and calm, and will have something nice afterwards – such as dinner or being hand grazed.

The one day I did trimmer time with a couple of other horses near her on the yard, who didn’t bat an eye, Phoenix did seem less stressed so I will bear that in mind when it comes to clipping her. Perhaps have her best friend (who likes clippers!) tied near her.

The biggest factor in deciding on whether I’ll sedate her to clip is safety. Do I think she’s accepted the clippers enough to remain level headed, or is the adrenaline going to be pumping and her be in flight mode, which risks me being kicked or hurt. I don’t want her to learn a bad habit or bad associations with clipping, so I’d much rather she is put to sleep, has a positive experience, and then we continue with desensitisation over the winter and through the summer.

We shall see how the next couple of weeks goes. I think given time she’ll learn to accept clipping because it’s her nature to try to please, and so I’ll give her all the time she needs.

Choke

Let’s talk about choke.

On Thursday the Chauffeur/Unpaid groom/Video man/Babysitter went to catch Phoenix. When they came in he commented how easy she was to catch. Not that she’s difficult, but she sometimes wants to know what’s in it for her and needs a treat.

She seemed fine as I tied her up and started grooming. As I began brushing her neck I heard a gurgle coming from her gullet. Then I looked more closely, and just behind her jaw was swollen and very tender when I touched it. She gurgled again, before contracting her neck and retching.

I knew it was choke, but haven’t had to deal with it for a few years. The cases I’ve seen have been ponies gorging dry pony nuts and getting a bolus stuck in their gullet. We used to massage their throat to help break up the blockage, but occasionally they needed tubing.

For those who don’t know, choke is when a horse gets a blockage in their oesophagus. Horses can’t be sick, so despite their retching the blockage can only go one way. My first concern was what the blockage could be. After grilling the chauffeur, we concluded that she had the blockage before she was caught. She’d been standing, not eating, and had only taken the treat from him because he put it under her nose, rather than her usual investigative air. There’s no apples, conkers or anything like that in her field, and she does like to browse the hedgerow, so my primary concern was that she had a stick lodged in her throat.

After a couple of violent spasms in quick succession, and high sensitivity in her neck, I rang the vet. I wanted to check I was doing the correct thing, and also to get Phoenix on their radar in case they needed to come out.

As Phoenix didn’t have anything coming out her nose, the vet told me to wait for fifteen to twenty minutes to see if she resolved it herself. Obviously with no food within her reach. I could massage her neck to soften the bolus to help it clear, so long as she The spasms should become less intense and further apart. Once I think she’s cleared the blockage I should offer her a small sloppy feet – a warm mash – or take her to some grass and see if she starts grazing.

Phoenix stopped retching fairly quickly so when she’d been calm and quiet for ten minutes we offered her some grass. She tucked in happily so after grazing for a few minutes I took her back to the yard to check nothing was amiss.

She was fine, so I turned her out, trying to ignore her disgruntled face at the fact she wasn’t having any dinner!

Choke is seen as a medical emergency because whilst many cases resolve themselves without veterinary attention, there is a risk of dehydration and further complications if the oesophagus has been obstructed for a long time. Instructions range from a large, dry bolus of food (caused by gorging), carrots sliced into discs instead of lengthways (I see a surprising number of people feed carrots this way), to foreign objects like conkers or twigs (why it’s important walkers don’t feed horses over the fence).

The vet’s procedure is to tube the horse to ensure there is a blockage, and then to sedate the horse to help them clear the blockage. In more serious cases, they are tubed and fluids gently sent up to soften and clear the blockage. On rare occasions, surgery is required to remove the blockage.

So whilst it’s very unpleasant to watch your horse spasming with choke, don’t panic. Remove any food, make a note of the frequency of the episodes and then ring your vet who can advise.

To Rug Or Not To Rug?

There are posts all over social media about over rugging horses as it’s that time of year when it’s pretty chilly at night, but lovely and warm during the day.

I’m holding out while we have fine weather this week, and leaving Phoenix naked. Sure I’m sure she’s a bit chilly in the very middle of the night, but she’s got plenty of fur, and is after all a tough native. But the rest of the time she’s plenty warm enough. She can move around her field to keep warm, or shelter by the hedgeline. With the baby to manage, it is easier to not have to worry about her being too hot in the day with a rug on if I can’t get there early enough.

Here’s a guide which has been doing the rounds recently, and I think will surprise many owners with the rugging advice.

My Mum and I had a discussion about what are light weights or zero fill rugs and their individual merits.

Rain sheets, with no filling, are in our opinion only useful for warm, wet summer days when convenience is important. Such as a competition or it’s raining and you need your horse to be dry to ride. If you were to use them in the autumn, when the horses have grown a thick coat you are just flattening the hairs, which prevents the horse raising the coat and trapping a layer of air next to the skin to act as an insulator and keep them warm. This is called the pilomotor reflex, and is the same reason we get goosebumps when we’re cold.

At least a lightweight rug compensates for flattening the coat by providing warmth via the filling. It’s worth considering when thinking about what rug to put on your horse, as they will probably be better off naked than with a zero fill rug on chilly autumn days.

When looking to the guide for help it’s worth remembering the following points:

  • Older horses or ones with arthritis will need thicker rugs as they feel the cold more.
  • Horses that tend to drop off weight suddenly will benefit from having their rug on a little earlier than their friend who holds their weight.
  • If your horse has previously been rugged up to the nines they will need to acclimatise to your more minimalist rug approach, so you may need to rug more than you thought for the first couple of autumns.
  • Some horses just feel the cold more than others.
  • The guide refers to fully clipped, or hunter clipped horses, when they state “clipped”, so if your horse is only partially clipped you may not need to rug up as much as the guide says. It may be more of a case of using a rug with a neck rather than a heavier fill of rug.
  • Depending on your horse’s breed, they may grow a much denser coat than others, so may need less rugging than a finer coated counterpart.

All in all, we as horse owners need to ensure we aren’t over rugging horses to ensure they are less at risk of colic due to being too hot, the obese and laminitic ones lose weight over the winter so they’re less at risk in the spring and their hormone levels reset themselves.